Vitamin A

Vitamin A is required for vision and its deficiency leads to night blindness in children below 5 years of age, prevalence of bitots spot.

35-60 million people suffer from Vitamin A Deficiency in India.

Vegetarian get vitamins from fruits & vegetables.

Fruits & vegetables contains beta that does not get fully converted into retinol & thus absorbed by our body.

Deficiency can be addressed through food fortification.

Dr. - Marwaha

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency affects 70-90% of our population.

It causes rickets, growth problems, bowlegs, knocked knees, etc.

Indian diet is not rich in Vitamin D because it is mainly vegetarian.

Adequate exposure of body surfaces to sunlight is required. Best time between 11am-1pm.

Salmon is good source of Vitamin D.

Milk & Edible Oil Fortification with Vitamin D provides 1/3 of an individual's daily requirement of the nutrients.

Dr. - Marwaha


Anaemia is common among both undernourished and nourished people.

In Initial period from 1960-2007, there was a low acceptability of iodized salt (40-60%), however after mandatory legislation (2007), the coverage increased to 92% now. However, only 78% receive adequately iodised salt.

Most of the maternal death in 1970s was anaemia.

Most of the iron we need comes from meat, which gets absorbed 50% by our body. Through vegetables, there is limited intake and only 3% absorption. This is the reason why iron deficiency is a major problem in the country.

Fortification of iodized salt with iron (Double Fortified Salt) is a way to address iron deficiency anaemia in addition to iron in wheat flour and rice. It is a cost effective way of dealing with micronutrient deficiency.

In 1970s NIN created iron fortified salt. Both the technology approved by FSSAI for producing iron fortified salt has been shared with industry.

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to anaemia. Any successful iron-supplementation program should focus on pregnant women, their education and awareness and regular monitoring of the implementation.

Communication around fortification needs to be targeted correctly. Pregnant women are more likely to adopt iron-fortified food for the health of their baby.

If outreach of iron fortified food is increased, 50% reduction of anaemia by 2025 is an achievable goal.

Dr. - Prema Ramchandran


Cost Benefit Ratio – Every 1 rupee spent in iodized salt, provides benefit amountingto almost 80 rupees.

Linkage with GDP – contribute to 1.25% in GDP.

The success of the salt iodization program in India rests on "Panchayat"-the five major pillars, which areapplicable large-scale food fortification of all five staples.

Sound Scientific Research—Policy--Program and Political Commitment-- Private Sector Participation -- Partnerships with development agencies for People.

Today, 99 percent of the iodized salt produced inthe country is by the private sector.

Private sector plays a crucial role in sensitizing the population about food fortification through CSR initiatives.

Fortification is one of the most scalable, sustainable and cost effectiveapproach to fight hidden hunger.

Promotion of +F Logo as a key point for media workshop.

92% of the population has now access to iodine salt as per survey.

He also suggested the tag line– Food with + F logo – Ask for it, look for it, use it andspread the word.

Iodine-yuktnamakpratidin, buddhi or swasthrakhesurakshithar din
Daily intake of iodised salt-a healthy habit .

Dr. - Prema Ramchandran

Folic Acid

Deficiency of folic acid in pregnant women leads to Neural Tube Defects in the baby such as Spina Bifida.

Folic acid needs to be taken by pregnant women before conception.

India & South East Asia & some parts of Africa have the highest cases of neural Tube defects (4.7-9 per 1000 in Punjab & Haryana). In developed world, it is less than 1 per 1000.

Adding folic acid to food through fortification can address this health issue.

Fortification has high benefit to cost ratio. For every one rupee is spent on prevention, Rs.25 is saved on the healthcare of every child.

Consumption of the standard required by pregnant may prevent up to 50,000 children born every in India.

The media plays a huge role in awareness efforts to educate people about the importance of folic acid fortification.

Dr. - Santosh J Karmarkar

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also known as cynocobalamin is synthesized by most bacteria and algae with the help of enzymes.

Vitamin B12 synthesized in microorganisms enters the human food chain through incorporation into food of animal origin. Gastrointestinal fermentation supports the growth of these vitamin B12-synthesising microorganisms, and subsequently the vitamin is absorbed and incorporated into the animal tissues.

Vitamin B-12 is crucial to the normal function of the brain and the nervous system.

Deficiency of Vitamin B12 causes pernicious anaemia. It is rarely caused due to lack of Vitamin B12 in the diet but because of the absence the intrinsic factor in the stomach leading to failure of absorption of Vitamin B12. the bone marrow is not able to produce mature RBCs but releases a fewer number of large cells called macrocytes into the blood circulation. These are large cells and nucleated because of which the capacity of RBCs to carry haemoglobin is decreased.

Dr. - Santosh J Karmarkar